Wednesday, March 11, 2009

UAVs of Pakistan

The following article about Pakistan's UAV industry shows how that nation uses wisely its meagre resources while our Indian behemoths are always looking for imports with shoddy production which in turn is rejected by our armed forces. Except BRAHMOS, i think we have nothing much to crow about.Pakistan has also developped a Battery for submarines which allows its subs to remain under water for 24 hours without surfacing.Its tanks are also said to be suprior to our Arjuns though only an expert can verify that.Its arms are welcomed by SriLanka and Myanmar for its price and quality.

Pakistan's Defense Private Sector Emerges with Indigenous UAV Technology

By expert contributor, Mr. Riaz Haq

Back in 1970, the American Army Gen. William Westmoreland is reported to have said: "On the battlefield of the future, enemy forces will be located, tracked and targeted almost instantaneously through the use of data links, computer-assisted intelligence and automated fire control. … I am confident the American people expect this country to take full advantage of its technology-to welcome and applaud the developments that will replace wherever possible the man with the machine." It seems that this vision from the 1970s is being realized today. One manifestation of it is the development and deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles by many nations, including Pakistan.

The growing reliance on armed drones (aka Predators) by Americans in Afghanistan and Pakistan's FATA region to target militants has been making headlines with increasing casualties.

This technology of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or drones designed and manufactured in Pakistan has also been making news since the IDEAS (International Defense Exhibition and Seminar) 2008 event, a 5-day biennial arms show held November last year in Karachi, Pakistan. Among the largest foreign pavilions at the exhibition, Turkey had 28 companies and United States had 22. Other major exhibitors came from China, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, South Korea, South Africa, the Ukraine and the United Kingdom. Among other products, Pakistani companies showed off JF-17 fighter plane built by Pakistan Aeronautical Complex in partnership with China's Chengdu Aircraft, Al-Khalid main battle tank, and a variety of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) designed, developed and built in Pakistan.

While offering employment to thousands, and strengthening Pakistan's defense, the growing indigenous sophistication of many of the private sector companies is also becoming an attractive investment opportunity.

Integrated Dynamics

One such Company is Integrated Dynamics, a privately held Pakistani company that drew attention at the IDEAS 2008 expo. It is a developer and manufacturer of unmanned aerial vehicles which is exported to Australia, Spain, South Korea and Libya and the United States. The UAV Company is an example of a new generation of private defense companies in Pakistan that have grown with the emerging needs of Pakistani military and export opportunities to both military and civilian sectors abroad.

Integrated Dynamics is a full-service UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) systems provider based in Karachi, Pakistan. The company has been in business since 1997 and designs and integrates UAV systems primarily for the Government of Pakistan, the Pakistan armed forces and export.

The company says they are committed to the use of the UAV system as a scientific and defensive tool that can be used to save lives and monitor potentially hostile environments for human personnel. The company also makes drones such as the turbojet-powered Tornado decoy, which can fly up to 200 kilometers, and emit false radar signals to "confuse enemy air defenses into thinking they are attacking aircraft," according to Defense News of Pakistan.

In addition to supplying drones to the Pakistani military, the company exports its products to Australia, Spain, South Korea and Libya and the United States. The US Homeland Security Department uses ID's Border Eagle surveillance drone for border patrol duties. Integrated Dynamics' products cost only a fraction of the cost of comparable products made in the United States and Europe. According to the Karachi-based company, ID UAV prices start from about USD 20,000 while in comparison UAV products made in the West start from about USD 200,000. The ID models have operational ranges of 20 to 1,600 kilometers.

Integrated Dynamics had begun to develop the Firefly mini-rocket UAV in late 2004 in response to the Pakistani army's operational requirements for a high-speed, short-range observation system that could be used in the high-altitude environments of northern Pakistan. A basic system of such sort costs around USD 3,000 and comprises four rockets, a launcher, a carry case, datalink and a PDA-based ground control station.

Emerging Sophistication from a Cottage Industry

Pakistan's arms manufacturing sector has long been considered to be a cottage industry. The dusty little town of Darra Adam Khel,only a half-hour drive from Peshawar, reminds visitors of America's Wild West. The craftsmen of this town are manufacturers and suppliers of small arms to the tribal residents of the nation's Federally Administered Tribal Areas who carry weapons as part of their ancient culture. The skilled craftsmen of FATA make revolvers, automatic pistols, shotguns and AK-47 rifles. Until five years ago, the list also had items such as anti-personnel mines, sub-machine guns, small cannons and even rocket launchers. The Pakistani government has forced the tribesmen to stop making heavy assault weapons to try and prevent the Taliban and Al Qaeda from having access to such weapons.

Pakistan's arms industry has come a long way from making small arms as a cottage industry in the last few decades. The US and Western arms embargoes imposed on Pakistan at critical moments in history have proved to be a blessing in disguise. In particular, the problems Pakistan faced in the aftermath of the Pressler Amendment in 1992 became an opportunity for the country to rely on indigenous development and production of defense equipment.

Pakistan's Military Industrial Complex

The country now boasts a powerful industrial, technological and research-based developing and manufacturing sector for its armed forces and exports a wide variety of small and large weapons ranging from modern fighter jets, battle tanks, armored vehicles, frigates and submarines to unmanned aerial vehicles and high tech firearms and personal grenade launchers for urban combat. Some of these items were on display at IDEAS 2008.

Pakistan has become an increasingly important player in the world arms industry, a global industry and business which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. Arms production companies, also referred to as Defense Contractors, produce arms mainly for the armed forces of nation states. Products include guns, ammunition, missiles, military aircraft, military vehicles, ships, electronic Systems, and more. The arms industry also conducts significant research and development. Pakistan's major defense manufacturing companies are owned and operated by Pakistan's military.

According to Business Monitor, Pakistan's defense industry contains over 20 major public sector units (PSUs) and over 100 private-sector firms. The majority of major weapons systems production and assembly is undertaken by the state-owned PSUs, while the private-sector supplies parts, components, bladed weapons and field equipment.

Major PSUs include the Pakistan Ordnance Factory (POF), Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) and the Pakistan Machine Tool Factory. Multinational presence in Pakistan is limited, although joint production or engineering support in the development of certain armaments has recently occurred with companies such as DCN International and the Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group.

JF-17 Jointly developed by Paksiatn and China

IDEAS 2000, Pakistan's first major arms show, was organized after former President Musharraf assumed leadership of the country in the wake of the 1999 bloodless coup that toppled the Nawaz Sharif government. At the show, the former president emphasized the need for the growth of Pakistan's defense industry and private sector involvement in R&D, manufacturing and marketing of arms. Held every two years since the year 2000, the show has become a runaway success. It has helped Pakistan and other friendly nations to show off their wares, find customers, share knowledge, build bilateral partnerships, encourage scientific innovation and learning among young people and made visitors and Pakistani citizens more aware of the role the defense industry plays in national defense and economy.

World Arms Market

It is estimated that yearly, over USD 1 trillion are spent on military expenditures worldwide (2% of World GDP). Part of this goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry. The combined arms sales of the top 100 largest arms producing companies amounted to an estimated USD 315 billion in 2006. In 2004 over USD 30 billion were spent in the international arms trade (excluding domestic arms sales). Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms industry to supply their own military forces. Some countries also have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by its citizens. The illegal trade in small arms is prevalent in many countries and regions affected by political instability.

Pakistan's Arms Business

In a July 2008 interview with Pakistan's Dawn newspaper, Major General Mohammad Farooq, Director General of the Defense Export Promotion Organization, claimed that Pakistan's defense exports have tripled to around USD 300 million because of the quality of its ammunition, anti-tank guided missiles, rocket launchers and shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles. He said exports to South Asian, Middle Eastern and African countries had increased significantly. It has been reported that Sri Lanka has purchased cluster bombs, deep penetration bombs and rockets and UAVs from Pakistan.

General Farooq said optical instruments like night vision devices, laser range-finders and designators, laser threat sensors, artillery armor mortars and munitions, mine detectors, anti-tank rifles, missile boats, different types of tear gases, fuses of unarmed vehicles, security equipment and sporting and hunting guns were also being manufactured in Pakistan. "The fuses are being purchased by countries like Italy, France and Spain," he said.

In recent times however, Pakistan has come under criticism by human rights groups for being a leading manufacturer and exporter of land-mines, cluster bombs and depleted uranium munitions.

Pakistan's UAV Industry

The three main branches of the Pakistani military are evaluating UAVs made in Pakistan and the rest of the world for purchase and deployment.

Pakistan has been eager to boost its capabilities for high-tech aerial warfare and restructure and reorient its military to respond to the new and emerging challenges of combating insurgents. A number of public and private sector companies have been engaged in research, development and manufacturing of unmanned aerial vehicles as a part of this initiative. The public sector companies include Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Air Weapons Complex and National Development Complex.

This growing interest by Pakistani military and also foreign companies and governments has helped spawn several private Pakistani UAV companies specializing in air-frames, launch and propulsion, flight control, tele-command and control systems, signal intelligence, training simulators, etc. In addition to Integrated Dynamics mentioned earlier, other private companies involved in UAV development and manufacturing include, East-West Infinity, Satuma and Global Industrial Defense Solutions.

Flamingo - Satuma Pakistan

Mukhbar- Satuma Pakistan

Uqaab - Air Weapons Complex

Between the public and private sector UAVs developed in Pakistan, there is a long list of products. In addition to Integrated Dynamics described above, here are three more UAV companies in Pakistan:

East-West Infinity

One of the companies at the forefront of UAV development is East West Infinity (EWI). EWI's latest products are the Heliquad micro tactical UAV and the Whisper Watch signals intelligence (SIGINT) package. The Heliquad was first displayed in prototype form at the IDEAS 2006 defense exhibition. Equipped with a tiny camera, it can relay pictures back to troops or Special Forces in an urban environment or in the field, giving them a tactical reconnaissance capability. Being exceptionally small and powered by four electric motors, Heliquad is highly stealthy and represents the cutting edge of EWI's electronics miniaturization. SIGINT has become more important with ongoing anti-terrorism operations on the western front and in the tribal areas. Designed for militaries unable to afford high-end, dedicated SIGINT platforms, the company says its Whisper Watch platform is most effective when aerostat-mounted, as the platform is stationary and airborne for longer.


Satuma (Surveillance and Target Unmanned Aircraft), founded in 1989, is a small UAV specialist company based near Islamabad, Pakistan. Satuma products include Flamingo, Jasoos and Mukhbar UAVs. Its biggest customer is the Pakistani military.

Global Industrial Defense Solutions

GIDS, the largest of the private defense sector companies, has a UAV division, which produces a whole range of operational and training UAVs, the main customer of which is the Pakistani military. The UAVs developed by GIDS have been extensively flight tested by the military. GIDS ground control stations have an interactive and user friendly interface, where flight parameters and auto-pilot mission planning, and execution is done in addition to reception of high-end crisp quality video transmitted over an encrypted digital link.

Headed by a retired PAF Air Vice Marshall, GIDS has emerged from a combination of 7 Pakistani private defense companies that include AERO (Advanced Engineering Research Organization), IDS (Integrated Defense Systems), MSL (Maritime Systems Pvt Limited), ACES (Advanced Computing and Engineering Solutions), IICS (Institute of Industrial Control Systems), ATCOP (AI-Technique Corporation) and SETS (Scientific Engineering and Technology Solutions). Other than UAVs, its major products include anti-personnel, anti-armor, incendiary, anti-runway, electronic impact and time-based fuses, electronic warfare equipment, navigation systems, optical fiber and optical fiber cables. Anti-tank Wire Guided Missile System known as "Baktar Shiken" made by IICS, is a component of GIDS.


Pakistan's growing defense industry is becoming high tech to keep up with the challenges of a changing world that requires advanced weapons and new strategies to maintain peace and stability in a hostile neighborhood. Simultaneously, Pakistan's defense industry is contributing to a scientific, technological, industrial and economic development of the nation by training and employing thousands of citizens. The investments made in defense production are a good bargain for the companies, their investors and the taxpayers of Pakistan to help ensure the nation's economic, political and national security against both internal and external threats.

Monday, March 09, 2009

AMERICA. Is it a democracy?

President Abraham Lincoln spoke at Gettysburg "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.-----that this nation , under God, shall have a new birth of freedom- and that government: of the people,by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
President Obama when he was a candidate gave his vision in the following words "This century's threats are at least as dangerous as and in some ways more complex than those we have confronted in the past. They come from weapons that can kill on a mass scale and from global terrorists who respond to alienation or perceived injustice with murderous nihilism. They come from rogue states allied to terrorists and from rising powers that could challenge both America and the international foundation of liberal democracy. They come from weak states that cannot control their territory or provide for their people."
"As commander in chief, I would also use our armed forces wisely. When we send our men and women into harm's way, I will clearly define the mission, seek out the advice of our military commanders, objectively evaluate intelligence, and ensure that our troops have the resources and the support they need. I will not hesitate to use force, unilaterally if necessary, to protect the American people or our vital interests whenever we are attacked or imminently threatened."
There is a review of AFPAK policy going on with best of minds of Present administration.But the 17,000 troops surge is happening even before the review is over and approved by the President
Candidate Obama promised to bring American troops from Iraq, a war which he voted against as senator and a war which he promised to close by bringing all the American troops before Xmas, later extended to 16 months.Today we hear the President has extended it further to 2011, a date originally promised by Bush. Not only that a number of 50,000 out of the present 1,42000 troops will remain may be indefinitely.The American people voted for Obama over Macain because they thought MaCain is going to be a Bush third term.But suddenly we find Obama Presidency is turning out to be almost Bush third term compared to the campaign promises.
What we find is that American people in spite of all the primary debates within the parties and then the Presidential debates and campaign promises are not considered intelligent enough to KNOW the TRUTH about various issues affecting them. What we see is that Government policies are run by special interests. These interests donot want to be more influenced by general public which may NOT BE ADEQUATELY INFORMED about specialized need of the American nation.This can be high finance,national security issues, but can be slowly expanded to include even health care,education, and time taken to sign the bills after it was approved by the senate(Obama promised at least one week but in actual practice he is giving only two days or even less!!)
Indian media used to talk about how ignorant is general Indian populace about various issues affecting them like Indo/US nuke deal wherein even elected parliamentarians may not know the difference between Uranium and plutonium.But now i find that Americans voted for change with regard to Iraq,Iran,AFPAK, but actually they are getting Bush III.I can say with a smirk that it is not Indian population alone are taken for a ride but also the population of America, the oldest democracy in the world.

Sunday, March 08, 2009

NUKE ப்ரோடோகோல்/ருலேர்ஸ் முச்ட் லுக் அட் his

The governors of IAEA board approved a 31 page "CONCLUSION OF SAFEGUARDS AGREEMENTS AND ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL" which will allow the IAEA inspectors additional powers. This additional power will allow the Inspectors to inspect 100 additional nuclear related materials including software and hardware.This will include the following.
1.Entire reactor
2.Heavy water plants,
3.Reactor core groups,
4.Coolant and vacuum pumps
5.Parts of fuel producing centrifuges,
7.Uranium metal products
8.Laser systems
Not a single question from NDA stalwarts like Jaswant singh,Yeshwant Sinha ,Arun shourie
Not a single question from Praksh Karat and Yechury
Not a single question from Media or discussion on this issue.
Of course it is UPA which has signed this additional protocol.
What is funny about the whole issue is our so called intellectuals asked Musharaff at India Today summit was about Dawood Ibrahim!!!
Nobody asked him how could a nation which is 1/4th size of India can demand PARITY which he espoused openly.
Nobody asked about Shimla agreement
Nobody asked about privatization of terror and whether a nation can be absolved of the crime if so called "private actors" commit terror?

I am adding the following article by former Chairman of Indian atomic energy commission for information of all.

A lesson in nuclear reactors

M.R. Srinivasan

India is a world leader in PHWRs. While currently available uranium can
support some 10,000 MW, we may double that using uranium from overseas or from
new finds in India.

A great deal has been written on nuclear reactors in our media in recent
months by commentators, many of whom are unfamiliar with what a nuclear reactor
is. To make the whole debate relating to the Indo-U.S. nuclear agreement more
meaningful, I propose in this article to describe what a nuclear reactor is and
the differences among the many covered by the discussions.
A nuclear reactor is one where a controlled self-sustaining nuclear reaction
takes place in which uranium nuclei fission (or break up) releasing energy,
manifesting as heat. There are two basic types of reactors, those wherein the
neutrons produced in the fission process are slowed down for facilitating
further fission of uranium. These reactors are called slow neutron reactors or
thermal reactors (the reason is that the neutron velocities are in thermal
equilibrium with ambient temperatures) . In such reactors, the uranium is
dispersed in a slowing down medium (called moderator), which can be graphite,
ordinary water (of high purity, called light water in nuclear parlance) or heavy
water (present in natural water to the extent of one part in seven thousand).

In a fast reactor, the fission process takes place with high-energy neutrons,
not requiring a moderator. But it is necessary to use concentrated fissile
materials such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium. In these reactors, large
amounts of heat are produced from a small volume thus requiring special
materials for taking away the heat.
Removal of heat from thermal reactors is done with coolants such as carbon
dioxide gas or light water or heavy water. In fast reactors, it is necessary to
employ a coolant such as molten sodium.
Among thermal reactors, there are two basic types, those that can use natural
uranium as fuel and those that require enriched uranium as fuel. Naturally
occurring uranium has two components U235, present to the extent of one part in
one hundred and forty parts, which is fissionable, and U238, which is not
fissionable (except with high energy neutrons). But U238 gets converted to
artificially created fissionable material plutonium 239, after irradiation in a
reactor. Similarly, thorium 232 is not fissionable but gets converted to fissile
U233 after irradiation in a reactor. To gain access to Pu239 or U233, it is
necessary to "reprocess" the spent fuel consisting of irradiated U238 or
In the early days of nuclear development, enrichment of uranium was carried
out primarily to produce weapon grade U235. The U.S., U.S.S.R., Britain and
China built enrichment plants as part of their weapons programmes. France and
later India used reactor-produced plutonium for the initial nuclear explosions.
The U.S., U.S.S.R., Britain and China also produced reactor made plutonium for
their weapons. The U.S. and U.S.S.R. took up development of nuclear propulsion
reactors for submarines and these reactors used enriched uranium as fuel and
light water as moderator and coolant. These reactor designs were scaled up to
provide designs for production of electricity. Such reactors are called Light
Water Reactors (LWR) in the West and VVER in the Soviet Union. Typically, these
reactors use uranium enriched to between 3 and 5 per cent; submarine reactors
use a higher level of enrichment.
The LWRs developed in the U.S. have two variants; those that produce steam in
the reactor vessel are called Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and those where the
hot water from the reactor produces steam in external steam generators are
called the Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The LWRs have also been adopted in
France, Germany, Japan and Korea, after getting the technology from the U.S. The
VVER developed in Russia was adopted in East Europe (formerly part of the Soviet
Bloc) and also in Finland, India (Kudankulam) and China.
Britain and France which initially did not have large uranium enrichment
capability developed a graphite moderated carbon dioxide cooled reactor that
could use natural uranium as fuel. These are called GCR or Magnox reactors.
Britain had a further variant of the GCR called Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor
(AGR) which used slightly enriched uranium. While a number of GCRs were built in
Britain and France and some AGRs in Britain, adverse economics and operational
complexities resulted in suspending this design.
Canada worked on another reactor design that could use natural uranium as
fuel with heavy water as moderator and coolant. The Canadians call it CANDU
reactor and the international nuclear community calls it the Pressurised Heavy
Water Reactor (PHWR). From the inception of India´s nuclear energy programme, it
had zeroed in on reactors that could use natural uranium (available in India,
though of low grade and not very extensive) as fuel. It chose the PHWR system
developed in Canada and cooperated with the latter on its second nuclear power
station located in Rajasthan. India had chosen a two-unit BWR station designed
by the U.S. for the first nuclear power station located at Tarapur, based on
international competitive bidding.
The PHWR system fitted well into India´s eventual plans to utilise the energy
potential of thorium, of which it has a large quantity. The PHWRs are efficient
producers of plutonium, needed to fuel Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs). The FBRs
can irradiate thorium in the blanket region and produce U233. U233 can then be
used with thorium in thermal or fast reactors. India has designed an Advanced
Thermal Reactor (ATR) of 300 MW which will work on U233-Th fuel cycle.
Construction work on this may commence in 2008.
Apart from Canada, India is one of the producers of heavy water in industrial
quantities and has developed on its own a number of processes for the purpose.
India produces all special materials, such as zirconium, and all equipment for
PHWRs. It has standardised 220 MW units, of which is has built 10 reactors and
four more are in an advanced stage of completion. It also completed two 540 MW
reactors at Tarapur recently. It has finalised the design of a 700 MW unit which
will be built in a number of locations. India-designed and built PHWRs are the
lowest cost reactors in the world.
However, more than 80 per cent of the power reactors operating in the world
are LWRs (including VVER which belongs to the same generic type, though there
are some important engineering differences) . Initially the U.S. and later
France, Germany and Japan (in cooperation with the U.S.) and the USSR (now
Russia) built strong industrial capabilities to build LWRs. Electric power
utilities find it simpler and more convenient to operate LWRs as they have
features flowing out of conventional coal-fired steam power technology.
Natural uranium reactors, both Magnox (GCR) and PHWR, require to be fed with
fresh fuel regularly (on a daily basis). Some spent fuel has to be taken out
when the reactor is operating. The PHWRs, due to their inherent lower
reactivity, have a limitation on how quickly they can restart and be loaded,
after an interruption due to any fault. The LWRs do not suffer from this
disability. They can run for 15-18 months without a fuel change; the latter
requires the reactor to be off line for a month or so.
What India is looking for, if it can re-enter international nuclear commerce,
is to add some 40,000 MW in the time period 2010-2030. For this to happen, India
would like to access LWRs from Russia, France (Franco-German entity) and the
U.S. (in cooperation with Japan). There need be no apprehension that large
number of LWRs would be imported fully from overseas. Our industry already
supplies the whole range of equipment for PHWRs and will certainly participate
in supplying components for imported LWRs too. In fact, Korea and China, which
are building LWRs, have similar vigorous localisation programmes.
India is a world leader in PHWRs and while currently available uranium can
support some 10,000 MW, we may double that using uranium from overseas or from
new finds in India. India is also expected to have a lead role globally in
development of Fast Breeder Rectors and Thorium-based systems.
Hence the nervousness that India may become a dumping ground for LWRs from
the nuclear advanced countries to the detriment of India´s own nuclear
industrial capacity building is unwarranted. Re-entering the international civil
nuclear energy arena is good for India and good for the world, as it will
enhance the development of an important non-carbon source of energy.
and clarifications

(The writer is a former Chairman, and at present
member, of the Atomic Energy Commission.)